鏃ユ湡:2019-06-10 09:45


Educational success among children of similar cognitive ability depends on their background
鑳屾櫙鍐冲畾鍎跨鐨勬暀鑲叉垚灏?br />by University of Oxford
Britain's got talent鈥攂ut we're still wasting it. That's the main finding of a new report by researchers from Oxford University published today.
鑻卞浗鏈変汉鎵嶏紝浣嗘垜浠粛鍦ㄦ氮璐逛汉鎵嶃€?杩欐槸鐗涙触澶у鐮旂┒浜哄憳浠婂ぉ鍙戣〃鐨勪竴浠芥柊鎶ュ憡鐨勪富瑕佸彂鐜般€?br />Children of similar cognitive ability have very different chances of educational success; it still depends on their parents' economic, socio-cultural and educational resources.
璁ょ煡鑳藉姏鐩镐技鐨勫効绔ヨ幏寰楁暀鑲叉垚鍔熺殑鏈轰細鍗翠笉鍚? 杩欏彇鍐充簬浠栦滑鐖舵瘝鐨勭粡娴庡疄鍔涖€佺ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧拰鏁欒偛璧勬簮銆?br />This contradicts a commonly held view that these days that our education system has developed enough to give everyone a fighting chance.
杩欎笌浜轰滑鏅亶鎸佹湁鐨勮鐐圭浉鐭涚浘锛岃繖绉嶈鐐硅涓猴紝濡備粖鎴戜滑鐨勬暀鑲蹭綋绯诲凡缁忓彂灞曞埌瓒充互缁欐瘡涓汉涓€涓鏂楃殑鏈轰細銆?br />The researchers, led by Dr. Erzs茅bet Bukodi from Oxford's Department of Social Policy and Intervention, looked at data from cohorts of children born in three decades: 1950s, 1970s and 1990s.
鐗涙触澶у绀句細鏀跨瓥鐮旂┒閮ㄩ棬鐨凟rzs茅bet Bukodi鍗氬+甯﹂鐨勭爺绌朵汉鍛橈紝鐮旂┒浜嗗嚭鐢熷湪50骞翠唬銆?0骞翠唬鍜?0骞翠唬涓変釜鏃舵鐨勫効绔ョ殑鏁版嵁銆?br />They found significant evidence of a wastage of talent. Individuals with high levels of cognitive ability but who are disadvantaged in their social origins are persistently unable to translate their ability into educational attainment to the same extent as their more advantaged counterparts.
浠栦滑鍙戠幇浜嗕汉鎵嶆祦澶辩殑閲嶈鍘熷洜銆?鍏锋湁楂樻按骞宠鐭ヨ兘鍔涗絾鍦ㄧぞ浼氬嚭韬柟闈㈠浜庡姡鍔跨殑涓綋锛屽缁堟棤娉曚笌閭d簺鏉′欢杈冨ソ鐨勪汉杈惧埌鐩稿悓绋嬪害鐨勬暀鑲叉垚灏便€?br />The research, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, found that only about half of the difference in educational attainment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged parental backgrounds is due to differences in their cognitive ability. The other half is due to other factors associated with their backgrounds.
杩欓」鐮旂┒鐢辩編鍥界撼鑿插皵寰峰熀閲戜細鍗忎細璧勫姪锛岀爺绌跺彂鐜板澧冭緝濂界殑瀛╁瓙鍜屽澧冨洶闅剧殑瀛╁瓙鍦ㄥ鍘嗕笂鐨勫樊寮傛湁涓€鍗婃槸鐢变簬浠栦滑璁ょ煡鑳藉姏鐨勫樊寮傘€傚彟涓€鍗婂垯鏄笌浠栦滑鐨勫搴儗鏅湁鍏崇殑鍏朵粬鍥犵礌銆?br />"If we compare the educational attainment of children born in the 1990s to those in the late 1950s and early 1970s, we see that parent's economic resources have become a less important factor, but their socio-cultural and educational resources have grown in significance," says Dr. Bukodi. "
Bukodi 鍗氬+璇?鈥滃鏋滄垜浠妸20涓栫邯90骞翠唬鍑虹敓鐨勫瀛愮殑瀛﹀巻涓?0涓栫邯50骞翠唬鏈拰70骞翠唬鍒濆嚭鐢熺殑瀛╁瓙杩涜姣旇緝锛屾垜浠細鍙戠幇鐖舵瘝鐨勭粡娴庤祫婧愬凡缁忔垚涓轰竴涓笉閭d箞閲嶈鐨勫洜绱狅紝浣嗘槸浠栦滑鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧拰鏁欒偛璧勬簮宸茬粡鍙樺緱瓒婃潵瓒婇噸瑕併€?quot;
That means that your parents' place in society and their own level of education still play a big part in how well you may do.
杩欐剰鍛崇潃锛屼綘鐖舵瘝鍦ㄧぞ浼氫腑鐨勫湴浣嶅拰浠栦滑鑷繁鐨勬暀鑲叉按骞筹紝浠嶇劧鍦ㄥ緢澶х▼搴︿笂鍐冲畾鐫€浣犵殑鎴愬氨銆?br />These experts are now calling for policy-makers to acknowledge that formal qualifications are only one channel for upward mobility for high-ability individuals of disadvantaged backgrounds.
杩欎簺涓撳鐜板湪鍛煎悂鏀跨瓥鍒跺畾鑰呮壙璁わ紝姝e紡鐨勮祫鏍艰瘉涔﹀彧鏄澧冧笉濂界殑鐭ヨ瘑鍒嗗瓙鍚戜笂鎻愬崌鐨勪竴涓笭閬撱€?br />Dr. Bukodi says: "These findings show that there are limits to how far inequalities of opportunity can be reduced through educational policy alone. Changes in educational policy aren't having the impact we want."
Bukodi 鍗氬+璇?"杩欎簺鍙戠幇琛ㄦ槑锛屼粎浠呴€氳繃鏁欒偛鏀跨瓥灏卞彲浠ュ噺灏戞満浼氫笉骞崇瓑鐨勭▼搴︽槸鏈夐檺鐨勩€?鏁欒偛鏀跨瓥鐨勫彉鍖栨病鏈変骇鐢熸垜浠兂瑕佺殑褰卞搷銆?quot;


Apart from education, job training programmes, promotions or becoming self-employed in higher-level occupations are important channels for upward mobility.
闄や簡鏁欒偛澶栵紝鑱屼笟鍩硅璁″垝銆佹檵鍗囨垨鍦ㄨ緝楂樿亴浣嶈嚜闆囬兘鏄悜涓婃彁鍗囩殑閲嶈閫斿緞銆?br />Bukodi co-authored a recent book on this issue with Dr. John Goldthorpe who commented that, "The real mobility problem is that upward mobility is falling while downward mobility is rising.
Bukodi鏈€杩戜笌John Goldthorpe鍗氬+鍚堣憲浜嗕竴鏈叧浜庤繖涓棶棰樼殑涔︼紝浠栬瘎璁鸿:"鐪熸鐨勬祦鍔ㄦ€ч棶棰樻槸锛屽悜涓婂眰娴佸姩鎬т笅闄嶏紝鑰屽悜涓嬪眰娴佸姩鎬т笂鍗囥€?br />Young people now face less favourable mobility prospects than their parents or grandparents." If we are to reverse that trend, we need to look beyond formal education to find other channels for success.
涓庝粬浠殑鐖舵瘝鎴栫鐖舵瘝鐩告瘮锛岀幇鍦ㄧ殑骞磋交浜哄湪绀句細鍦颁綅娴佸姩鏂归潰鐨勫墠鏅笉閭d箞涔愯銆?quot; 濡傛灉鎴戜滑瑕佹壄杞繖涓€瓒嬪娍锛屾垜浠渶瑕佽秴瓒婃瑙勬暀鑲诧紝瀵绘壘鍏朵粬鎴愬姛鐨勬笭閬撱€?br />