II. The US has backtracked on its commitments in the China-US economic and trade consultations
浜屻€佺編鍥藉湪涓編缁忚锤纾嬪晢涓嚭灏斿弽灏斻€佷笉璁茶瘹淇?br />In response to the economic and trade friction started by the US, China has been forced to take countermeasures, as bilateral trade and investment relations took a hit. For the well-being of the Chinese and American people and the economic development of the two countries, both sides deemed it necessary to come to the negotiating table to seek a solution through consultation. Since they were launched in February 2018, the economic and trade consultations have come a long way with the two sides agreeing on most parts of the deal. But the consultations have not been free of setbacks, each of them being the result of a US breach of consensus and commitments, and backtracking.
缇庡浗鎸戣捣缁忚锤鎽╂摝鍚庯紝涓浗涓嶅緱涓嶉噰鍙栧簲瀵规帾鏂斤紝涓ゅ浗璐告槗銆佹姇璧勫叧绯诲彈鍒板奖鍝嶃€傚弻鏂逛粠涓ゅ浗浜烘皯绂忕闇€瑕併€佷粠鍚勮嚜缁忔祹鍙戝睍闇€瑕佸嚭鍙戯紝閮借涓烘湁蹇呰鍧愪笅鏉ヨ繘琛岃皥鍒わ紝閫氳繃纾嬪晢瑙ｅ喅闂銆傝嚜2018骞?鏈堢粡璐哥鍟嗗惎鍔ㄤ互鏉ワ紝宸插彇寰楀緢澶ц繘灞曪紝涓ゅ浗灏卞ぇ閮ㄥ垎鍐呭杈炬垚鍏辫瘑锛屼絾纾嬪晢涔熺粡鍘嗕簡鍑犳娉㈡姌锛屾瘡娆℃尝鎶橀兘婧愪簬缇庡浗鐨勮繚鑳屽叡璇嗐€佸嚭灏斿弽灏斻€佷笉璁茶瘹淇°€?br />(I) The first US backtracking
锛堜竴锛夌涓€娆″嚭灏斿弽灏?br />China had advocated resolving economic and trade friction through negotiation and consultation from the start. In early February 2018, the US government expressed the wish that China send a high-level delegation to the US to engage in economic and trade consultation. Demonstrating great goodwill and positive efforts, China held several rounds of high-level economic and trade consultations with the US, characterized by in-depth exchanges of views on trade imbalance among other major issues. The two sides made substantial progress as they reached preliminary consensus on expanding China's imports of agricultural and energy products from the US. However, on March 22, 2018, the US government unveiled the so-called report on Section 301 investigation of China, falsely accusing China of "IP theft" and "forced technology transfer", and subsequently announced an additional tariff of 25 percent on US$50 billion of Chinese exports to the US.
涓浗浠庝竴寮€濮嬪氨涓诲紶锛屼腑缇庣粡璐告懇鎿﹀簲閫氳繃璋堝垽纾嬪晢瑙ｅ喅銆?018骞?鏈堝垵锛岀編鍥芥斂搴滄彁鍑哄笇鏈涗腑鍥芥淳楂樼骇鍒唬琛ㄥ洟璧寸編杩涜缁忚锤纾嬪晢銆備腑鍥藉睍绀轰簡鏋佸ぇ璇氭剰锛屼綔鍑虹Н鏋佸姫鍔涳紝鍏堝悗涓庣編鍥戒妇琛屼簡鏁拌疆楂樼骇鍒粡璐哥鍟嗭紝閲嶇偣灏辫锤鏄撲笉骞宠 绛夐棶棰樻繁鍏ヤ氦鎹㈡剰瑙侊紝骞跺氨鎵╁ぇ鑷編鍥借繘鍙ｅ啘浜у搧銆佽兘婧愪骇鍝佺瓑鍒濇杈炬垚鍏辫瘑锛屽彇寰楅噸瑕佽繘灞曘€備絾鏄紝2018骞?鏈?2鏃ワ紝缇庡浗鏀垮簻鎶涘嚭鎵€璋撳鍗庘€?01璋冩煡鈥濇姤鍛婏紝瀵逛腑鍥芥彁鍑衡€滅洍绐冪煡璇嗕骇鏉冣€濃€滃己鍒舵妧鏈浆璁┾€濈瓑涓嶅疄鎸囪矗锛屽苟鍩轰簬姝ゅ绉板皢瀵逛粠涓浗杩涘彛鐨勪环鍊?00浜跨編鍏冨晢鍝佸姞寰?5%鍏崇◣銆?br />(II) The second US backtracking
Taking a big-picture view of the bilateral relationship, the Chinese government sent a working team again to the US to engage in genuine consultations. On May 19, 2018, China and the US issued a joint statement, agreeing to refrain from fighting a trade war, to continue high-level communications, and to actively seek solutions to respective economic and trade concerns. The US publicly announced that it would suspend the plan for additional tariffs on Chinese goods. On May 29, 2018, despite the opposition of its domestic business community and the general public, the US administration tore up the consensus just ten days after the joint statement, gratuitously criticizing China's economic system and trade policy, while announcing the resumption of the tariff program. Starting from early July 2018, in three steps, the US imposed additional tariffs of 25 percent on Chinese exports worth US$50 billion, and additional tariffs of 10 percent on US$200 billion of Chinese exports, which, according to the US, would beraised to 25 percent on January 1, 2019. In addition, the US threatened further tariffs on all remaining Chinese exports, leading to quick escalation of the economic and trade friction between the two countries. In defense of its national dignity and its people's interests, China had to respond in kind and raised tariffs on imports worth US$110 billion from the US.
涓浗鏀垮簻浠ヤ袱鍥藉叧绯诲ぇ灞€涓洪噸锛屽啀娆℃淳鍑哄伐浣滃洟闃熷悓缇庡浗杩涜浜嗚鐪熺鍟嗐€?018骞?鏈?9鏃ワ紝涓編鍙戝竷鑱斿悎澹版槑锛岃揪鎴愪簡鈥滃弻鏂逛笉鎵撹锤鏄撴垬鈥濈殑鍏辫瘑锛屽悓鎰忕户缁繚鎸侀珮灞傛矡閫氾紝绉瀬瀵绘眰瑙ｅ喅鍚勮嚜鍏虫敞鐨勭粡璐搁棶棰樸€傜編鍥藉叕寮€琛ㄧず锛屾殏鍋滄帹杩涘鍗庡姞寰佸叧绋庤鍒掋€?018骞?鏈?9鏃ワ紝缇庡浗鏀垮簻涓嶉【鍥藉唴宸ュ晢鐣屽拰骞垮ぇ姘戜紬鐨勫弽瀵癸紝鍦ㄥ弻鏂瑰彂甯冭仈鍚堝０鏄庝粎10澶╁悗灏辨帹缈荤鍟嗗叡璇嗭紝瀵逛腑鍥界殑缁忔祹浣撳埗銆佽锤鏄撴斂绛栨í鍔犳寚璐ｏ紝瀹ｅ竷灏嗙户缁帹杩涘姞寰佸叧绋庤鍒掋€傝嚜2018骞?鏈堝垵浠ユ潵锛岀編鍥藉垎涓夋瀵?00浜跨編鍏冧腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佸姞寰?5%鐨勫叧绋庛€佸2000浜跨編鍏冧腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佸姞寰?0%鐨勫叧绋庯紝骞剁О鑷?019骞?鏈?鏃ヨ捣灏嗙◣鐜囨彁楂樿嚦25%銆傜編鍥借繕濞佽儊瑕佸鍓╀綑鎵€鏈変腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佸姞寰佸叧绋庯紝瀵艰嚧涓ゅ浗闂寸殑缁忚锤鎽╂摝蹇€熷崌绾с€備腑鍥戒负鎹嶅崼鍥藉灏婁弗鍜屼汉姘戝埄鐩婏紝涓嶅緱涓嶄綔鍑哄繀瑕佸弽搴旓紝绱瀵?100浜跨編鍏冪編鍥借緭鍗庡晢鍝佸姞寰佸叧绋庛€?br />(III) The third US backtracking
On November 1, 2018, US President Donald Trump had a telephone conversation with Chinese President Xi Jinping and proposed a summit meeting. On December 1 the two presidents had a meeting on the margins of the G20 Summit in Argentina. In accordance with their important consensus on economic and trade issues, the two sides agreed to halt new additional tariffs for 90 days to allow for intensive talks geared toward the full elimination of all additional tariffs. In the ensuing 90 days, the working teams of China and the US held three rounds of high-level consultations in Beijing and Washington D.C., reaching preliminary consensus on many matters of principle for the China-US economic and trade deal. On February 25, 2019, the US announced the postponement of the additional tariffs scheduled for March 1 on US$200 billion of Chinese exports to the US. From late March to early April, the working teams of the two countries held another three rounds of high-level consultations and made substantial progress. Followingnumerous rounds of consultations, the two countries had agreed on most of the issues. Regarding the remaining issues, the Chinese government urged mutual understanding and compromise for solutions to be found.
2018骞?1鏈?鏃ワ紝缇庡浗鎬荤粺鐗规湕鏅悓涔犺繎骞充富甯€氱數璇濓紝骞舵彁璁妇琛屼袱鍥藉厓棣栦細鏅ゃ€?2鏈?鏃ワ紝涓編涓ゅ浗鍏冮鍦ㄩ樋鏍瑰环浜屽崄鍥介泦鍥㈤瀵间汉宄颁細鏈熼棿涓捐浼氭櫎锛屽氨鍙岃竟缁忚锤闂杈炬垚閲嶈鍏辫瘑锛屽悓鎰忓仠姝㈢浉浜掑姞寰佹柊鐨勫叧绋庯紝鍦?0澶╁唴鍔犵揣寮€灞曠鍟嗭紝鏈濈潃鍙栨秷鎵€鏈夊姞寰佸叧绋庣殑鏂瑰悜鍔姏銆傛鍚?0澶╅噷锛屼腑缇庡伐浣滃洟闃熷湪鍖椾含鍜屽崕鐩涢】涓捐3杞珮绾у埆纾嬪晢锛屽氨涓編缁忚锤鍗忚鐨勫師鍒欏唴瀹硅揪鎴愯澶氬垵姝ュ叡璇嗐€?019骞?鏈?5鏃ワ紝缇庢柟瀹ｅ竷鎺ㄨ繜鍘熷畾鐨?鏈?鏃ヨ捣瀵逛环鍊?000浜跨編鍏冧腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佹彁楂樺叧绋庣殑鏈熼檺銆?鏈堝簳鑷?鏈堝簳锛屼袱鍥藉伐浣滃洟闃熷張杩涜3杞珮绾у埆纾嬪晢锛屽彇寰楀疄璐ㄦ€ц繘灞曘€傜粡杩囧杞鍟嗭紝涓ゅ浗宸插氨澶ч儴鍒嗛棶棰樿揪鎴愪竴鑷淬€傞拡瀵归仐鐣欓棶棰橈紝涓浗鏀垮簻鎻愬嚭锛屽弻鏂硅浜掕皡浜掕锛屽叡鍚屽鎵捐В鍐冲垎姝х殑鍔炴硶銆?br />But the more the US government is offered, the more it wants. Resorting to intimidation and coercion, it persisted with exorbitant demands, maintained the additional tariffs imposed since the friction began, and insisted on including mandatory requirements concerning China's sovereign affairs in the deal, which only served to delay the resolution of remaining differences. On May 6, 2019, the US irresponsibly accused China of backtracking on its position to shift the blame for the inconclusive talks onto China. Despite China's fierce opposition, the US raised the additional tariffs on US$200 billion of Chinese exports to the US from 10 percent to 25 percent, which represented a serious setback to the economic and trade consultations. On May 13, the US announced that it had launched procedures to slap additional tariffs on remaining Chinese goods, which are worth around US$300 billion. These acts contradicted the agreement reached by the two presidents to ease friction through consultation 鈥?and the expectations of people around the world 鈥?casting a shadow over the bilateral economic and trade consultations and world economic growth. In defense of its own interests, China had to take tariff measures in response.
鐒惰€岋紝缇庡浗鏀垮簻寰楀杩涘昂锛岄噰鍙栭湼鍑屼富涔夋€佸害鍜屾瀬闄愭柦鍘嬫墜娈碉紝鍧氭寔涓嶅悎鐞嗙殑楂樿浠凤紝鍧氭寔涓嶅彇娑堢粡璐告懇鎿︿互鏉ュ姞寰佺殑鍏ㄩ儴鍏崇◣锛屽潥鎸佸湪鍗忚涓啓鍏ユ秹鍙婁腑鍥戒富鏉冧簨鍔＄殑寮哄埗鎬ц姹傦紝瀵艰嚧鍙屾柟杩熻繜鏈兘寮ュ悎鍓╀綑鍒嗘銆?019骞?鏈?鏃ワ紝缇庡浗涓嶈礋璐ｄ换鍦版寚璐ｄ腑鍥界珛鍦衡€滃€掗€€鈥濓紝浼佸浘灏嗚皥鍒よ縿鏈畬鎴愮殑璐ｄ换褰掑拵浜庝腑鍥斤紝骞朵笉椤句腑鍥藉潥鍐冲弽瀵癸紝鑷?鏈?0鏃ヨ捣灏?000浜跨編鍏冧腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佸姞寰佸叧绋庣◣鐜囩敱10%鎻愰珮鑷?5%锛屽鑷翠腑缇庣粡璐哥鍟嗕弗閲嶅彈鎸€?鏈?3鏃ワ紝缇庡浗瀹ｅ竷鍚姩瀵瑰墿浣欑害3000浜跨編鍏冧腑鍥借緭缇庡晢鍝佸姞寰佸叧绋庣殑绋嬪簭銆備笂杩颁妇鍔ㄤ笌涓編鍏冮閫氳繃纾嬪晢鍖栬В鎽╂摝鐨勫叡璇嗙浉鎮栵紝涓庝袱鍥藉拰涓栫晫鍚勫浗浜烘皯鐨勬湡寰呯浉鎮栵紝缁欏弻杈圭粡璐哥鍟嗗拰涓栫晫缁忔祹澧為暱鍓嶆櫙钂欎笂浜嗛槾褰便€備负鎹嶅崼鑷韩鍒╃泭锛屼腑鍥戒笉寰椾笉閲囧彇鍔犲緛鍏崇◣鐨勬帾鏂戒簣浠ュ簲瀵广€?br />(IV) The US government should bear the sole and entire responsibility for this severe setback to the China-US economic and trade consultations
锛堝洓锛変腑缇庣粡璐哥鍟嗕弗閲嶅彈鎸紝璐ｄ换瀹屽叏鍦ㄧ編鍥芥斂搴?br />The US government accusation of Chinese backtracking is totally groundless. It is common practice for both sides to make new proposals for adjustments to the text and language in ongoing consultations. In the previous more than ten rounds of negotiations, the US administration kept changing its demands. It is reckless to accuse China of "backtracking" while the talks are still under way. Historical experience has proved that any attempt to force a deal through tactics such as smears, undermining and maximum pressure will only spoil the cooperative relationship. Historic opportunities will be missed.
缇庡浗鏀垮簻鎸囪矗涓浗鍦ㄧ鍟嗕腑鈥滃紑鍊掕溅鈥濆畬鍏ㄦ槸鏃犵ń涔嬭皥銆傚湪鍙屾柟纾嬪晢浠嶅湪杩涜鐨勮繃绋嬩腑锛屽氨鏂囨湰鍐呭鍙婄浉鍏宠〃杩版彁鍑轰慨鏀瑰缓璁€佸仛鍑鸿皟鏁达紝杩欐槸璐告槗璋堝垽鐨勯€氬父鍋氭硶锛岀編鍥芥斂搴滃湪杩囧幓鍗佷綑杞皥鍒や腑鏇句笉鏂皟鏁寸浉鍏宠瘔姹傦紝闅忔剰鎸囪矗涓柟鈥滃€掗€€鈥濇槸涓嶈礋璐ｄ换鐨勩€傚巻鍙茬粡楠岃瘉鏄庯紝璇曞浘閫氳繃娉艰剰姘淬€佹媶鍙般€佹瀬闄愭柦鍘嬬瓑鎵嬫杈炬垚鍗忚锛屽彧浼氱牬鍧忓弻鏂瑰悎浣滃叧绯伙紝閿欏け鍘嗗彶鏈洪亣銆?br />A civilized country turns to forceful measures only when gentler approaches have failed. After the US issued the new tariff threat, the international community was widely concerned that China might cancel the consultation visit to the US. It kept a close watch on the future direction of the China-US trade negotiations. Bearing in mind the broader interests of trade and economic relations between the two countries, China remained cool-headed, exercised restraint, and sent a senior delegation to the US, as agreed, for the 11th round of economic and trade consultation from May 9 to 10. In doing so, China demonstrated the greatest sincerity and a strong sense of responsibility for resolving trade disputes through dialogue. In the following candid and constructive discussions, the two sides agreed to manage differences and continue consultations. China expressed strong opposition to the unilateral tariff increase by the US and stated its firm position that it would have to take necessary countermeasures. China emphasized once again that trade deals must be based on equality and mutual benefit. China will never compromise on major principles concerning China's core interests. One prerequisite for a trade deal is that the US should remove all additional tariffs imposed on Chinese exports and China's purchase of US goods should be realistic while ensuring that a proper balance in the text of the agreement is achieved to serve the common interests of both sides.
鍚涘瓙涔嬪浗锛屽厛绀煎悗鍏点€傜編鍥芥彁鍑烘柊鐨勫叧绋庡▉鑳佸悗锛屽浗闄呯ぞ浼氭櫘閬嶆媴蹇т腑鍥藉彲鑳藉彇娑堣荡缇庣鍟嗚鍒掞紝鍏虫敞涓編缁忚锤纾嬪晢浣曞幓浣曚粠銆備腑鍥戒粠缁存姢涓編缁忚锤鍏崇郴鐨勫ぇ灞€鍑哄彂锛屼繚鎸佺悊鎬с€佸厠鍒剁殑鎬佸害锛屾寜鐓у弻鏂规鍓嶇害瀹氾紝浜?019骞?鏈?鏃ヨ嚦10鏃ユ淳鍑洪珮绾у埆浠ｈ〃鍥㈣荡缇庤繘琛岀鍗佷竴杞粡璐哥鍟嗭紝灞曠ず涓庣編鍥介€氳繃瀵硅瘽瑙ｅ喅缁忚锤鍒嗘鐨勬渶澶ц瘹鎰忓拰璐熻矗浠绘€佸害銆備腑缇庡弻鏂硅繘琛屼簡鍧﹁瘹銆佸缓璁炬€х殑浜ゆ祦锛屽悓鎰忓姫鍔涚鎺у垎姝э紝缁х画鎺ㄨ繘纾嬪晢銆備腑鍥藉缇庡浗鍗曡竟鍔犲緛鍏崇◣鐨勫仛娉曡〃杈惧己鐑堝弽瀵癸紝闃愭槑涓ユ绔嬪満锛岃〃绀哄皢涓嶅緱涓嶉噰鍙栧繀瑕佹帾鏂戒簣浠ュ洖鍑汇€備腑鍥藉啀娆″己璋冿紝缁忚锤鍗忚蹇呴』鏄钩绛夈€佷簰鍒╃殑锛屽湪娑夊強涓浗鏍稿績鍒╃泭鐨勯噸澶у師鍒欓棶棰樹笂鍐充笉浼氳姝ャ€傚弻鏂硅揪鎴愬崗璁殑鍓嶆彁鏄編鍥藉彇娑堝叏閮ㄥ姞寰佸叧绋庯紝閲囪喘瑕佺鍚堝疄闄咃紝鍚屾椂纭繚鍗忚鏂囨湰骞宠 锛岀鍚堝弻鏂瑰叡鍚屽埄鐩娿€?br />