I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world
Trumpeting "America First", the current US administration has adopted a series of unilateral and protectionist measures, regularly wielded tariffs as a "big stick" and coerced other countries into accepting its demands. The US has initiated frequent investigations under the long-unused Sections 201 and 232 against its main trading partners, causing disruption to the global economic and trade landscape. Specifically targeting China, in August 2017 it launched a unilateral investigation under Section 301. Turning a blind eye to China's unremitting efforts and remarkable progress in protecting intellectual property and improving the business environment for foreign investors, the US issued a myriad of slanted and negative observations, and imposed additional tariffs and investment restrictions on China, provoking economic and trade friction between the two countries.
鐜颁换缇庡浗鏀垮簻濂夎鈥滅編鍥戒紭鍏堚€濇斂绛栵紝瀵瑰閲囧彇涓€绯诲垪鍗曡竟涓讳箟鍜屼繚鎶や富涔夋帾鏂斤紝鍔ㄨ緞浣跨敤鍏崇◣鈥滃ぇ妫掆€濓紝灏嗚嚜韬埄鐩婅瘔姹傚己鍔犱簬浠栧浗銆傜編鍥藉惎鐢ㄥ皹灏佸骞寸殑鈥?01璋冩煡鈥濃€?32璋冩煡鈥濈瓑鎵嬫锛屽鍚勪富瑕佽锤鏄撲紮浼撮棰戝嚭鎵嬶紝鎼呬贡鍏ㄧ悆缁忚锤鏍煎眬銆傜編鍥借繕灏嗙煕澶村鍑嗕腑鍥斤紝浜?017骞?鏈堝惎鍔ㄥ崟杈硅壊褰╂祿鍘氱殑鈥?01璋冩煡鈥濓紝鏃犺涓浗澶氬勾鏉ュ湪鍔犲己鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈淇濇姢銆佹敼鍠勫璧勮惀鍟嗙幆澧冪瓑鏂归潰鐨勪笉鎳堝姫鍔涘拰鍙栧緱鐨勫法澶ф垚缁╋紝瀵逛腑鍥戒綔鍑鸿澶氫笉瀹㈣鐨勮礋闈㈣瘎浠凤紝閲囧彇鍔犲緛鍏崇◣銆侀檺鍒舵姇璧勭瓑缁忚锤闄愬埗鎺柦锛屾寫璧蜂腑缇庣粡璐告懇鎿︺€?br />Box 1: China's technological innovation is based on self-reliance. Accusing China of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer is utterly unfounded.
涓撴爮1 涓浗鐨勭鎶€ 鍒涙柊婧愪簬鑷姏鏇寸敓鎸囪矗涓浗鈥滅洍绐冣€濈煡璇嗕骇鏉冦€佸己鍒舵妧鏈浆璁╂鏃犱緷鎹?br />China is an innovative and diligent nation. It has created a highly-sophisticated civilization and contributed significantly to human progress over the course of 5,000 years. Since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, and in particular since the beginning of reform and opening up in 1978, China's scientific and technological undertakings have passed through a series of phases. They started from a difficult beginning, forged ahead in the course of reform, and have now achieved multiple breakthroughs featuring a variety of innovations. These achievements have won worldwide recognition. Historical records confirm that China's achievements in scientific and technological innovation are not something we stole or forcibly took from others; they were earned through self-reliance and hard work. Accusing China of stealing intellectual property to support its own development is an unfounded fabrication.
涓崕姘戞棌瀵屾湁鍒涙柊绮剧锛屽媷浜庡悆鑻﹁€愬姵锛屽湪5000澶氬勾鏂囨槑鍙戝睍杩涚▼涓紝鍒涢€犱簡楂樺害鍙戣揪鐨勬枃鏄庯紝涓轰汉绫昏繘姝ヤ綔鍑洪噸瑕佽础鐚€傛柊涓浗鎴愮珛浠ユ潵鐗瑰埆鏄敼闈╁紑鏀句互鏉ワ紝涓浗鐨勭鎶€浜嬩笟鍦ㄨ壈闅句腑璧锋锛屽湪鏀归潻涓彂灞曪紝鍦ㄥ垱鏂颁腑绐佺牬锛屽彇寰椾簡涓句笘鐬╃洰鐨勬垚灏便€傚巻鍙插拰浜嬪疄鍏呭垎璇佹槑锛屼腑鍥藉湪绉戞妧鍒涙柊鏂归潰鍙栧緱鐨勬垚灏变笉鏄伔鏉ョ殑銆佷笉鏄姠鏉ョ殑锛岃€屾槸閫氳繃鑷姏鏇寸敓銆佽壈鑻﹀鏂楀緱鏉ョ殑锛屾寚璐ｄ腑鍥藉彂灞曢潬鈥滅洍绐冣€濈煡璇嗕骇鏉冿紝瀹屽叏鏄棤涓敓鏈夈€佹瀬鍏惰崚璋€?br />China is fully committed to intellectual property protection. It has established a legal system for the protection of intellectual property that is consistent with prevailing international rules and adapted to China's domestic conditions. China values the leading role of judicial measures in protecting intellectual property, and has achieved impressive results. The understanding of the importance of intellectual property among the general public and business community in China has increased, the value of royalties paid to foreign rights-holders has risen significantly, and the number of intellectual property applications and registrations has surged.
涓浗楂樺害閲嶈鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈淇濇姢锛屽凡寤虹珛璧风鍚堝浗闄呴€氳瑙勫垯鍜岄€傚簲涓浗鍥芥儏鐨勭煡璇嗕骇鏉冩硶寰嬩綋绯伙紱閲嶈鍙戞尌鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈鍙告硶淇濇姢鐨勪富瀵间綔鐢紝鍙栧緱鏄捐憲鎴愭晥銆備腑鍥芥皯浼楀拰浼佷笟鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈淇濇姢鎰忚瘑鏄捐憲鎻愰珮锛屽澶栨敮浠樼煡璇嗕骇鏉冧娇鐢ㄨ垂澶у箙鎻愬崌锛岀煡璇嗕骇鏉冪敵璇峰拰鐧昏閲忓揩閫熷闀裤€?br />The effective impact of China's intellectual property protection has won broad international recognition. Former WIPO Director General Arpad Bogsch spoke highly of China's legal framework for intellectual property protection, noting that China's achievements are "unmatched in the history of intellectual property protection". The US Chamber of Commerce recognized that China is making concrete progress in creating an intellectual property environment appropriate to the 21st century. In its 2018 China Business Climate Survey Report, the American Chamber of Commerce in China noted that among the main challenges facing its member companies operating in China, concern over intellectual property dropped from 5th place in 2011 to 12th place in 2018. An article in The Diplomat predicted that China will become a leader in global intellectual property. Many of the concerns raised by foreign firms doing business in China have already been addressed through judicial reform and a strengthened enforcement mechanism.
涓浗鐨勭煡璇嗕骇鏉冧繚鎶ゆ垚鏁堣幏鍥介檯骞挎硾璁ゅ彲銆備笘鐣岀煡璇嗕骇鏉冪粍缁囧墠鎬诲共浜嬮樋甯曞痉路椴嶆牸鑳ュ崥澹涓浗鐨勭煡璇嗕骇鏉冩硶寰嬩綋绯讳簣浠ラ珮搴﹁瘎浠凤細鈥滆繖鍦ㄧ煡璇嗕骇鏉冨彂灞曞彶涓婃槸鐙棤浜岀殑鈥濄€傜編鍥藉晢浼氭寚鍑猴紝涓浗鍦ㄥ缓璁鹃潰鍚?1涓栫邯鐨勭煡璇嗕骇鏉冪幆澧冩柟闈㈡鍦ㄥ彇寰楀疄璐ㄦ€ц繘灞曘€備腑鍥界編鍥藉晢浼氥€?018骞翠腑鍥藉晢鍔＄幆澧冭皟鏌ユ姤鍛娿€嬫樉绀猴紝鍏朵細鍛樹紒涓氬湪鍗庤繍钀ョ殑涓昏鎸戞垬涓紝鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈渚垫潈琛屼负宸茬敱2011骞寸殑绗?浣嶉檷浣庡埌2018骞寸殑绗?2浣嶃€傘€婂浜ゅ畼銆嬫潅蹇楁枃绔犳寚鍑猴紝涓浗灏嗘垚涓哄叏鐞冪煡璇嗕骇鏉冪殑棰嗗啗鑰呫€傚湪涓浗寮€灞曚笟鍔＄殑澶栧浗鍏徃鎵€鎻愬嚭鐨勬媴蹇э紝璁稿宸查€氳繃鍙告硶鏀归潻鍜屽姞寮烘墽娉曟満鍒跺緱鍒拌В鍐炽€?br />Respecting the laws of the market economy, China has been actively improving the policy system for innovation, continuously increasing investment in research and development, accelerating the development of innovators, and strengthening international cooperation on technological innovation in an all-round way. In terms of some key innovation indices, China is already among the world's leading players. As China continues to witness a series of major scientific and technological achievements, its industries are gravitating toward the middle and high end, and the country's international influence is markedly increasing. In 2017, total R&D investment in China reached RMB1.76 trillion, ranking second in the world. The number of patent applications reached 1.382 million, ranking No. 1 in the world for the seventh consecutive year. The number of invention patents granted reached 327,000, up by 8.2 percent year-on-year. China ranks third in the world in terms of valid invention patents held.
涓浗灏婇噸甯傚満缁忔祹瑙勫緥锛岀Н鏋佸畬鍠勫垱鏂版斂绛栦綋绯伙紝鎸佺画澧炲姞鐮斿彂鎶曚汉锛屽ぇ鍔涘煿鍏诲垱鏂颁汉鎵嶏紝鍏ㄦ柟浣嶅姞寮哄浗闄呯鎶€鍒涙柊鍚堜綔銆傜洰鍓嶏紝涓浗鐨勪富瑕佸垱鏂版寚鏍囧凡杩涗汉涓栫晫鍓嶅垪锛岄噸澶х鎶€鍒涙柊鎴愭灉涓嶆柇娑岀幇锛屽紩棰嗕骇涓氬悜涓珮绔繄杩涳紝鍥介檯褰卞搷鍔涙樉钁楁彁鍗囥€?017骞达紝鍏ㄧぞ浼氱爺鍙戞姇浜鸿揪1.76涓囦嚎鍏冿紝瑙勬ā灞呬笘鐣岀浜屼綅锛涘彂鏄庝笓鍒╃敵璇烽噺杈惧埌138.2涓囦欢锛岃繛缁?骞村眳涓栫晫棣栦綅锛涘彂鏄庝笓鍒╂巿鏉?2.7涓囦欢锛屽悓姣斿闀?.2%锛屾湁鏁堝彂鏄庝笓鍒╀繚鏈夐噺灞呬笘鐣岀涓夈€?br />China has always pursued international technical cooperation with mutual benefit and win-win as the basic value orientation. China's economic development has benefited from international technology transfer and dissemination. International holders of technology have also reaped enormous benefits from this process. China encourages and respects voluntary technical cooperation between Chinese and foreign firms based on market principles. It strongly opposes forced technology transfer and takes resolute action against intellectual property infringement. Accusations against China of forced technology transfer are baseless and untenable.
涓浗濮嬬粓浠ヤ簰鍒╁叡璧綔涓哄熀鏈环鍊煎彇鍚戝紑灞曞浗闄呮妧鏈悎浣滐紝涓浗缁忔祹鍙戝睍鍙楃泭浜庡浗闄呮妧鏈浆璁╁拰浼犳挱锛屽浗闄呮妧鏈寔鏈夎€呬篃浠庝腑鑾峰緱浜嗗法澶у埄鐩娿€備腑鍥介紦鍔卞拰灏婇噸涓浼佷笟鎸夌収甯傚満鍘熷垯鑷効寮€灞曟妧鏈悎浣滐紝鍧氬喅鍙嶅寮哄埗鎶€鏈浆璁╋紝涓ュ帀鎵撳嚮渚电姱鐭ヨ瘑浜ф潈鐨勮繚娉曠姱缃涓恒€傛寚璐ｄ腑鍥藉己鍒舵妧鏈浆璁╂病鏈変簨瀹炰緷鎹紝瀹屽叏绔欎笉浣忚剼銆?br />Turning a blind eye to the nature of the economic structure and the stage of development in China and the US, as well as the reality of the international industrial division of labor, the US insists that China's "unfair" and "non-reciprocal" trade policies have created a trade deficit in bilateral commercial exchanges that constitutes "being taken advantage of", leading to unilateral imposition of additional tariffs on China. In fact, in today's globalized world, the Chinese and American economies are highly integrated and together constitute an entire industrial chain. The two economies are bound in a union that is mutually beneficial and win-win in nature. Equating a trade deficit to being taken advantage of is an error. The restrictive measures the US has imposed on China are not good for China or the US, and still worse for the rest of the world.