2017骞磋€冪爺鑻辫(浜?鐪熼绗?绡?The Human Connection With Fire
鏃ユ湡:2017-11-05 11:26


Though often viewed as a problem for western states,
the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars,
says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
鏋楃伀鐢熸€佷笌娑堥槻绠$悊涓撳椹厠鎬澛疯帿閲岃尐琛ㄧず銆?br />In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires,
nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.
鍑犱箮鏄簩鍗佸勾鍓嶅湪杩欐柟闈㈡敮鍑烘瘮渚嬬殑涓€鍊嶃€?br />In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work,
such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep
that affect the lives of all Americans.
杩欎簺宸ヤ綔褰卞搷浜嗘墍鏈夌編鍥戒汉鐨勭敓娲汇€?br />Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts.
鍙︿竴浠朵妇鍥藉叧鍒囦箣浜嬫槸锛屾潵鑷叾浠栨満鏋勭殑鍏叡鍩洪噾鏄惁灏嗙敤浜庣伀鐏炬槗鍙戝尯鐨勫缓璁俱€?br />As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
姝e鑾噷鑼ㄦ暀鎺堟墍璇达紝鐢ㄤ簬寤鸿瀹跺洯鐨勮仈閭﹁祫閲戝彲鑳戒細琚悶娌″埌鐏伨涓殑棰戠巼濡備綍锛?br />"It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country," he says."
We need to take a magnifying glass to that.
瀵规锛屾垜浠渶瑕佺敤鏀惧ぇ闀滄潵鐪嬭繖涓棶棰樸€?br />Like, "Wait a minute, is this OK?"
姣斿璇达紝绛変竴涓嬶紝鈥樿繖鏍峰仛鍙鍚楋紵鈥?br />"Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
鐮旂┒鑰呰锛岃繖鏍风殑瑙傚康闇€瑕佸綋浠婄編鍥界ぞ浼氬湪鐪嬪緟鐏伨鐨勬柟寮忎笂鍋氬嚭鐩稿簲鐨勬敼鍙樸€?br />For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive.
棣栧厛锛屾湁鍏崇伀鐏剧殑浼氳皥搴旇鏇村叿鍖呭鎬с€?br />Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change,
鍦ㄨ繃鍘荤殑鍗佸勾锛屼汉浠殑鍏虫敞鐐逛竴鐩撮兘鍦ㄦ皵鍊欏彉鍖栦笂锛?br />how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
鍗筹紝婧愪簬娓╁姘斾綋鐨勫湴鐞冨彉鏆栧浣曡鍙戠伀鐏炬伓鍖栫殑鐜銆?br />While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
鑾噷鑼ㄦ暀鎺堣锛屽敖绠℃皵鍊欐槸涓€涓叧閿洜绱狅紝浣嗘槸涓嶈兘浠ョ壓鐗插叾浠栧奖鍝嶅洜绱犱负浠d环銆?br />"The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says.
Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be.
涓嶈兘璁よ瘑鍒拌繖涓€鐐瑰氨浼氬鑷粹€滄垜浠浜庡彲鑳芥€цВ鍐虫帾鏂界殑鐪嬫硶杩囦簬绠€鍗曞寲銆?br />Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited."
鎴戜滑瀵归棶棰樼殑璁よ瘑浠ュ強瀵归棶棰樿В鍐冲姙娉曠殑璁よ瘑鍙樺緱鏋佸叾鏈夐檺銆?br />At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity,
涓庢鍚屾椂锛屼汉浠粛鏃ф妸鐏伨瑙嗕负闇€瑕佸叏闈㈡帶鍒朵笖鍙湁鍦ㄥ繀瑕佷箣鏃舵墠闇€瑕侀噴鏀剧殑浜嬩欢锛?br />says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado.
绉戠綏鎷夊澶у鐨勯矋灏斿鏁欐巿璇淬€?br />But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life
鐒惰€岋紝鎵胯鐏伨鍦ㄤ汉绫荤敓娲讳腑鐨勫繀鐒跺瓨鍦ㄨ繖涓€鎬佸害锛?br />is an attitude, crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
瀵逛簬鍒跺畾纭繚鐏伨灏藉彲鑳藉畨鍏ㄧ殑娉曞緥銆佹斂绛栦互鍙婃儻渚嬫墠鏄嚦鍏抽噸瑕佺殑锛屽ス濡傛槸璇撮亾銆?br />"We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire," Balch says.
"It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today."
鐞嗚В骞跺敖鍔涙⒊鐞嗕汉绫诲綋浠婁笌鐏伨鐨勫叧绯昏嚦鍏抽噸瑕併€?br />

  • ecologyn. 鐢熸€佸
  • concentratev. 闆嗕腑锛屼笓蹇冿紝娴撶缉 n. 娴撶缉鐗?/span>
  • worsenv. (浣?鏇村潖锛岋紙浣? 鎭跺寲
  • conservationn. 淇濆瓨锛岄槻姝㈡祦澶憋紝瀹堟亽锛屼繚鎶よ嚜鐒惰祫婧?/span>
  • equationn. 鐩哥瓑锛屾柟绋?寮?, 绛夊紡锛屽潎琛?/span>
  • presencen. 鍑哄腑锛屽埌鍦猴紝瀛樺湪 n. 浠€侊紝椋庡害
  • elementn. 鍏冪礌锛屾垚鍒嗭紝缁勬垚閮ㄥ垎锛?澶嶆暟)鎭跺姡澶╂皵
  • expendituren. (鏃堕棿銆佸姵鍔涖€侀噾閽辩瓑)鏀嚭锛屼娇鐢紝娑堣€?/span>
  • disconnectedadj. 鍒嗙鐨勶紱鏃犵郴缁熺殑锛涗笉杩炶疮鐨?v. 鍒嗙锛坉is
  • frequencyn. 棰戠箒锛岄鐜?/span>