2017骞磋€冪爺鑻辫(浜?鐪熼绗?绡?The Human Connection With Fire
鏃ユ湡:2017-11-05 11:26

(鍗曡瘝缈昏瘧:鍗曞嚮)

Though often viewed as a problem for western states,
灏界鏃ョ泭棰戝彂鐨勯噹鐏父琚涓鸿タ閮ㄥ窞鐨勯棶棰橈紝
the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars,
浣嗙敱浜庡畠瀵硅仈閭︾◣鏀剁殑宸ㄥぇ褰卞搷锛岀洰鍓嶅凡鎴愪负涓€浠朵妇鍥藉叧鍒囦箣浜嬶紝
says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
鏋楃伀鐢熸€佷笌娑堥槻绠$悊涓撳椹厠鎬澛疯帿閲岃尐琛ㄧず銆?br />In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires,
缇庡浗鏋楀姟灞€姣忓勾鐢ㄤ簬闃茬伀鐨勯绠楁槸55浜跨編鍏冿紝2015骞村畠鐨勯槻鐏垂鐢ㄩ娆¤秴杩囦簡杩欎釜棰勭畻鐨勪竴鍗婏紝
nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.
鍑犱箮鏄簩鍗佸勾鍓嶅湪杩欐柟闈㈡敮鍑烘瘮渚嬬殑涓€鍊嶃€?br />In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work,
浜嬪疄涓婏紝鐜板湪鐢ㄤ簬璇ユ満鏋勫叾浠栧伐浣滅殑鑱旈偊鍩洪噾鍑忓皯浜嗭紝
such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep
璇稿妫灄淇濇姢銆侀泦姘村尯鍙婃枃鍖栬祫婧愮鐞嗕互鍙婂熀纭€璁炬柦鐨勭淮鎶わ紝
that affect the lives of all Americans.
杩欎簺宸ヤ綔褰卞搷浜嗘墍鏈夌編鍥戒汉鐨勭敓娲汇€?br />Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts.
鍙︿竴浠朵妇鍥藉叧鍒囦箣浜嬫槸锛屾潵鑷叾浠栨満鏋勭殑鍏叡鍩洪噾鏄惁灏嗙敤浜庣伀鐏炬槗鍙戝尯鐨勫缓璁俱€?br />As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
姝e鑾噷鑼ㄦ暀鎺堟墍璇达紝鐢ㄤ簬寤鸿瀹跺洯鐨勮仈閭﹁祫閲戝彲鑳戒細琚悶娌″埌鐏伨涓殑棰戠巼濡備綍锛?br />"It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country," he says."
浠栬锛氣€滀粠鍏叡鏀嚭鐨勮搴︽潵鐪嬶紝杩欏鏁翠釜鍥藉鏉ヨ宸茬粡鏄竴涓法澶х殑闅鹃鈥濓紝
We need to take a magnifying glass to that.
瀵规锛屾垜浠渶瑕佺敤鏀惧ぇ闀滄潵鐪嬭繖涓棶棰樸€?br />Like, "Wait a minute, is this OK?"
姣斿璇达紝绛変竴涓嬶紝鈥樿繖鏍峰仛鍙鍚楋紵鈥?br />"Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"
杩樻槸鎴戜滑杞€屾兂瑕佹妸閭d簺璧勬湰鏀归亾鐢ㄤ簬鍦版櫙鐨勪綆椋庨櫓鍖哄煙鍛紵
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
鐮旂┒鑰呰锛岃繖鏍风殑瑙傚康闇€瑕佸綋浠婄編鍥界ぞ浼氬湪鐪嬪緟鐏伨鐨勬柟寮忎笂鍋氬嚭鐩稿簲鐨勬敼鍙樸€?br />For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive.
棣栧厛锛屾湁鍏崇伀鐏剧殑浼氳皥搴旇鏇村叿鍖呭鎬с€?br />Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change,
鍦ㄨ繃鍘荤殑鍗佸勾锛屼汉浠殑鍏虫敞鐐逛竴鐩撮兘鍦ㄦ皵鍊欏彉鍖栦笂锛?br />how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
鍗筹紝婧愪簬娓╁姘斾綋鐨勫湴鐞冨彉鏆栧浣曡鍙戠伀鐏炬伓鍖栫殑鐜銆?br />While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
鑾噷鑼ㄦ暀鎺堣锛屽敖绠℃皵鍊欐槸涓€涓叧閿洜绱狅紝浣嗘槸涓嶈兘浠ョ壓鐗插叾浠栧奖鍝嶅洜绱犱负浠d环銆?br />"The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says.
浠栬锛氣€滀汉绫荤郴缁熶笌鎴戜滑璧栦互鐢熷瓨鐨勫湴鏅槸鐩镐簰鑱旂郴鐨勶紝鑰屼笖杩欑鐩镐簰鑱旂郴鏄弻鍚戠殑鈥濓紝
Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be.
涓嶈兘璁よ瘑鍒拌繖涓€鐐瑰氨浼氬鑷粹€滄垜浠浜庡彲鑳芥€цВ鍐虫帾鏂界殑鐪嬫硶杩囦簬绠€鍗曞寲銆?br />Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited."
鎴戜滑瀵归棶棰樼殑璁よ瘑浠ュ強瀵归棶棰樿В鍐冲姙娉曠殑璁よ瘑鍙樺緱鏋佸叾鏈夐檺銆?br />At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity,
涓庢鍚屾椂锛屼汉浠粛鏃ф妸鐏伨瑙嗕负闇€瑕佸叏闈㈡帶鍒朵笖鍙湁鍦ㄥ繀瑕佷箣鏃舵墠闇€瑕侀噴鏀剧殑浜嬩欢锛?br />says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado.
绉戠綏鎷夊澶у鐨勯矋灏斿鏁欐巿璇淬€?br />But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life
鐒惰€岋紝鎵胯鐏伨鍦ㄤ汉绫荤敓娲讳腑鐨勫繀鐒跺瓨鍦ㄨ繖涓€鎬佸害锛?br />is an attitude, crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
瀵逛簬鍒跺畾纭繚鐏伨灏藉彲鑳藉畨鍏ㄧ殑娉曞緥銆佹斂绛栦互鍙婃儻渚嬫墠鏄嚦鍏抽噸瑕佺殑锛屽ス濡傛槸璇撮亾銆?br />"We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire," Balch says.
椴嶅皵濂囨暀鎺堣锛屸€滄垜浠凡缁忔妸鎴戜滑鑷繁涓庣伀鐏惧墺绂诲紑鏉ワ紝
"It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today."
鐞嗚В骞跺敖鍔涙⒊鐞嗕汉绫诲綋浠婁笌鐏伨鐨勫叧绯昏嚦鍏抽噸瑕併€?br />

閲嶇偣鍗曡瘝
  • ecologyn. 鐢熸€佸
  • concentratev. 闆嗕腑锛屼笓蹇冿紝娴撶缉 n. 娴撶缉鐗?/span>
  • worsenv. (浣?鏇村潖锛岋紙浣? 鎭跺寲
  • conservationn. 淇濆瓨锛岄槻姝㈡祦澶憋紝瀹堟亽锛屼繚鎶よ嚜鐒惰祫婧?/span>
  • equationn. 鐩哥瓑锛屾柟绋?寮?, 绛夊紡锛屽潎琛?/span>
  • presencen. 鍑哄腑锛屽埌鍦猴紝瀛樺湪 n. 浠€侊紝椋庡害
  • elementn. 鍏冪礌锛屾垚鍒嗭紝缁勬垚閮ㄥ垎锛?澶嶆暟)鎭跺姡澶╂皵
  • expendituren. (鏃堕棿銆佸姵鍔涖€侀噾閽辩瓑)鏀嚭锛屼娇鐢紝娑堣€?/span>
  • disconnectedadj. 鍒嗙鐨勶紱鏃犵郴缁熺殑锛涗笉杩炶疮鐨?v. 鍒嗙锛坉is
  • frequencyn. 棰戠箒锛岄鐜?/span>